I have learned many things that I did not know in the past from this course. The most interesting concept was the enlightenment and the works of Jean Jacques Rousseau. The enlightenment was the “age of reason” and was brought upon for us to think rationally. This was a challenge to the religious teachings of that time because this theory was teaching people to think about what they see and how they feel about it rather than having someone else tell them how to think and feel about it. It was a way to debunk many Christian teachings so therefore a challenge for them. I believe that it was very interesting to learn of how the practice of reason was brought upon us, since we do use these techniques in our everyday lives. I believe that this is probably one of the most used concepts that we use in our lives today. I was very intrigued with the quote of “man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains”. It got me to think that there are many restrictions that can eliminate our ability to think rationally and also our ability to increase our human potential. This is because we believe we are born free and have the ability to learn numerous things however, there are many barriers in front of us to learn most things, such as tuition fees and how not many people can afford it. This has made me question a lot of things that I have learned myself about many cultures and religions. I do believe that everyone should think with reason because it is the only way someone could increase their intellectual potential. This I believe because without any barriers it would be very easy to learn things however, when someone is taught at a young age to believe something and not to do something they will follow trough with it. This said it would be harder for that person taught religious teachings at a young age to think rationally because of the restraints that his or her religion might have. I also believe that this is hurting our human potential because it is creating a barrier for us to learn different things and disabling us to think out side of our religious ways and think rationally. Overall, I have learned many things in this class, which I will always think about. It has made me question many things and is very interesting to learn that many concepts that were created years and years ago still exist today, concepts that we use in our everyday lives.
Weber believed that the protestant ethic was a key element in the development of capitalism because of their beliefs and how they are related to the capitalism. The protestant believed that “work is valued as an end in itself” (Simmons, Revitalizing the Classics, 2013, p. 207). The Protestants main duty was to do hard work. They also believed that the “accumulation of wealth is an indication of person virtue as well as of economic success” (Simmons, Revitalizing the Classics, 2013, p. 208). They believed that wealth was a reward for all the hard work that they would have done. They also believed that “the methodical life governed by reason is valued as a state of righteousness, as well as far economic efficiency” (Simmons, Revitalizing the Classics, 2013, p. 208). This meant planning for all activities to the smallest detail. They also believed in “economic success should not be used for personal enjoyment” (Simmons, Revitalizing the Classics, 2013, p. 208). They believed the money consumed by labour should not be used for personal expenses. They also believed in the “doctrine of predestination” which meant that they believed that people were born in a certain way or class and was fixed destiny for all. I do believe that this ethic is still alive today to some aspects because people want to work hard however, it is hard for someone not to use their hard works pay on personal pleasure.
What Ibn Khaldun this is wrong with the way that history has been studied in the Arabic world before his time was it was a very Eurocentric study. This meant that many of the things being studied were from theorist that were from European backgrounds and no other cultural input in their theories. I believe that he would think this is wrong because not everyone would be getting their perspective in the theory, which would mean that it would not relate to the majority of the world.
Rawls’ distributive justice theory was fairness as the essence of justice. He suggested that nothing should be in the power of someone who knows their place in society rather justice should be chosen by someone who doesn’t know their place in society. This he considered the “most fair” technique for a just society. He believed the only was there would a just society is if there was no ignorance in any decisions made. This would be no ignorance against race, gender, and social status. I believe this would be a good technique because there would be no prejudice or bias against one another. If the person does not know anything about the other it is harder for them to be ignorant against one another than one who knows everything about each other.
The critical race theory investigates the relationship of race, class, ethnicity and etc. to explain discrimination. It is a strategy that some what is trying to eliminate racism. One central tenet of the critical race theory is the centrality of race and racism in society and “asserts that the permanent component of life in any given multiracial and polyethnic society” (Quist-Adade, Social Theory an Social Justice, 2012, P. 57). Second is the challenge to dominant ideology that “challenges the claims of neutrality, objectivity, colorblindness, and meritocracy in society” (Quist-Adade, Social Theory an Social Justice, 2012, P. 57). Third is the centrality of experiential knowledge that :s=asserts that the experiential knowledge of people of color is appropriate. Legitimate and an integral part to analyzing and understanding racial inequality” (Quist-Adade, Social Theory an Social Justice, 2012, P. 57).
Global social justice is the wide spread of justice throughout the whole globe. It would be a fair way for the whole globe to find ways to be a just global system. Global sociological imagination is the way in which the capacity of ones mind was linked to decisions, actions, and life to other the actions of another in other parts of the world. An example of this would be the 911 attacks happened in New York however; the whole world was shocked by the actions that had occurred. This event also impacted a lot of situations in other parts of the world such as having an increase in border patrol in Canada to the US. These two concepts are related to one another. This is because the social imagination would want a global social justice system. Without a just global system things like increasing security would not occur post events such as the 911 attacks.
Human rights are privileges that belong or are given to all individuals or groups of people. Human rights are things that we need to cherish because they are a value for an individual to have, that not all people have the privilege of having. Human rights will also be considered different in all countries and are distributed differently throughout all the countries. Social justice is somewhat different to human rights because not all human rights would be considered just in all societies. For example, how some cultures consider suicide a right but this would not be considered as social justice because it would hinder the attainment of a just society. However, there are many aspects where social justice and human rights are similar because they both want a just system however, one is considering more of an individual situation where the other is considering a society’s system.
Human potential is the range in which a humans capabilities are in. thee all range from things like talents and intellectuality. I would consider something to be enabling human potential is schooling. This is because it enables humans to increase their knowledge, which in the end helps their human potential to be more intellectual. What I would consider to be constraining human potential would be expensive university tuition. This is because some people are not able to afford this much money and in the end are unable to go to school because of their financial situation.
Social justice is the social conditions that distributes the valued societal resources and also the removal of all obstacles that disturb a just society. It involves policies and things that involving in making those polices vivid that would result in the society to remain as just as possible. This is very important as a concept and practice because it would be a safer and better place to live in with the concept of a just society. This would also make the society because closer because as a society we would want to implement these things and disregard race, gender, class, and etc. this would mean that it would create a friendlier environment because we are disregarding all of these factors. In the end, it would help bring society together rather groups created by race, class and gender.
Class-in-itself is class that has false consciousness and is a class that doesn’t really know its source of oppression. This class is somewhat alienated It is also a capitalist superstructure. It is a definition of class that refers to economic standards of a group in the society. There is no common collective awareness of class positioning. It is when the groups comprise the exploited group. An example of this would be slaves in the 19th century and how people are still suffering today because of the aftermath of the relationship between the “white and blacks”.
Class-for-itself is a class consciousness that will stand for itself and work for itself. An example of this would be employing in the capitalist class that are aware of their own interests.
Historical materialism is the understanding of how a society makes a living and produce their goods. An example of this would be the productions that are happening today. When the society produces products they produce enough for the means of the whole society.
Dialectic materialism are premises that state that because of history there will always be tension between the owning class and the producing class and the process in which change occurs is dialectal.